Voluminous & abundant Medical Works of Xujiang River
Mar 9, 2015 09:47 AM  

The Xujiang River basinhas been in cultural and medical prosperity since the ancient times. Many local doctors were affected by the Confucian culture, so they are men with deep cultural attainments and abundant knowledge. As a result, they can get access to deep medical research and to understanding the various schools of thought. Some old theories were replaced and some literary works were composed, benefiting the later generations. There are 963 local doctors composing 684 kinds of abundant medical works, which are involved in medical classics, materia medica and clinical medicine.

In the development of medical classics, there are more than 90 kinds of works. Zhang Daoling of the Jin Dynasty wrote Identified Elixir. Shen Yingshan of the Tang Dynasty wrote Basic Questions and Annotation and Supplement for Key Link of Medicine. Lijiong, Zhou Yuquan, LiJian, Lixifan and Xiong Jingguang of the Song Dynasty wrote Compilation Graph and Word Solution for the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Eighty-one Difficult Issues,Dialectical Explanation for Classic of Questioning,Gist for Essentials of Internal Classic, Notes to Classic of Questioning and Explanation forTreatise on Cold Damage respectively. Lichan, Liu Zhongyun and Zhang Suichen of the Ming Dynasty wrote Introduction to medicine by Good Reading in Treatise on Cold Damage and Annotations to Treatise on Cold Damage respectively. Yu Jiayan, Shuzhao, Huang Gongxiu, Xie Yangyuan and Yang Ximin of the Qing Dynasty wrote Tracing Back to the Treatise on Cold Damage, Re-revision for Variorum of Treatise on Cold Damage, Treatise on Truth-seeking of Medical Records, Guidance of Golden Chamber and Solution to Treatise. Yao Zhishan and Xie Shuanghu of the Republic of China wrote SupplementCorrection for Treatise on Cold Damage and Annotations Commentaries for Treatise on Cold Damage respectively. Some ancient medical experts make corrections, textual researches, explanations and development for the medical classics. For example, Identified Elixir by Zhangdaoling makes new explanation and development for the Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic and Shen Nong’s Classic of the Materia Medica, being an earlier medical classic in the ancient China. Tracing Back to the Treatise on Cold Damage by Yu Jiayan makes a re-arrangement and re-classification for Treatise on Cold Damage, and advocates the theory of “Separation of the three cardinal guides”, making great contribution to the research of Treatise on Cold Damage. The rich contents about febrile diseases in the works have a further influence on the development of the science of epidemic febrile disease of traditional Chinese medicine.

In materia medica and prescription, there are more than 120 kinds of works. Ge Xuan of the Han Dynasty wrote Ge’s Prescriptions and Prescriptions by Wu Pu of Guangling. Zhang Ling of the Han Dynasty wrote Immortal Prescriptions. Ge Hong in the Jin Dynasty wrote Emergency Formulas to Keep Up One’s Sleeve andEssential Prescriptions from the Golden Cabinet. Wu Zeng of the Song Dynasty wrote Medical Formulary. Sa Qianzhai and Wei Yilin of Yuan Dynasty wrote Empirical Formulas from the Auspicious Bamboo Hall and Effective Formulae Handed down for Generations respectively. Li Cai and Gong Tingxian of the Ming Dynasty wrote Effective Prescription for Universal Kindness of the Masses and Fairy Prescription respectively.Huang Gongxiu, Cao Yansheng, Yu Wenzao and Mei Qizhao of the Qing Dynasty wrote Truth-Seeking Herbal Foundation, Compilation for Ten Thousand Prescriptions, Records of Experiments with Medical Formulas and Mei's New prescriptions respectively. Yang Zhiyi of the Republic of China wrote PracticalEmpirical Formulas. The collection, collation and mechanism exposition in materia medica and prescriptions have unique interpretations and developments. For example, Ge’s Prescriptions, Prescriptions by Wu Pu of Guangling, Emergency Formulas to Keep Up One’s Sleeve and Essential Prescriptions from the Golden Cabinet are the earlier prescription monographs of China. Medical Formulary collects widely from various ancient prescriptions before the Song Dynastybeing the medical prescription works with the largest number of prescriptions at that time in China. Empirical Formulas from the Auspicious Bamboo Hall, with correspondence of formula and syndrome, precise matching and definite words, fits into clinical practice, thus, having a wide influence.

In basic application, there are more than 150 works. Li Jiong, Li Minshou and Yan Sandian of the Song Dynasty wrote Pulse Formulas Gathering and Explaining, Annotations for Yu Han Jing and Abstract of Pulse Diagnostic Method respectively. Du Ben of the Yuan Dynasty wrote Ao’ s Medical Records for Cold Damage. Yao Yizhong of the Ming Dynasty wrote Gists of Pulse Diagnose. Huang Gongxiu, Chen Boshi, Chen Li, Zhou Fangjun, Xiong Zhaolin and Yang Shiheng of the Qing Dynasty wrote Principle of Pulse, Searching-Origin of Experts on Pulse Diagnosis, Distinguishing Doubts of Various Herb Doctors’Arugments, Treatment Based on Pulse Diagnosis, Textual Criticism for Verifyingand Collection of Pulse Books respectively. Zhang Peiyi and Yao Guomei of the Republic of China wrote Pathology of TCM and Handouts of diagnosis and treatment respectively. All the works make elaborations and development for the diagnostic methods and mechanism of pulse diagnosis, tongue diagnosis and syndrome. For example, Abstract of Pulse Diagnostic Method by Yan Sandian has been praised for its subtle pulse diagnosis. The works Integration of Ancient and Modern Books· Collection of Medical Books commends,“The world marvels at Yan Sandian from Jiangxi province for distinguishing the diseases caused by 6 meridians just by pressing 3 points on patient’s wrist. ”Another example, Ao’ s Medical Records for Cold Damage by Du Ben is famous for the skills of tongue distinguishing. Du Ben drew 36 tongue graphs with annotations. During all the existing books of tongue diagnosis in China, it is the first specialized book with graphs and annotations, serving as a link between past and future of the development of tongue diagnosis.

In the clinical divisions, there are more than 320 kinds of works. In the Tang Dynasty, Yu Yi wrote Key to Healing ulcer and Treatment of Goiter. Shi Jianwu wrote Collection of Group of Fairies and Key to Medicine by Huayang. In the Sony Dynasty, Chen Ziming wrote Complete Effective Prescriptions for Women and Essence of External Diseases. Xihong wrote On Acupuncture Moxibustion by Xihong. In the Yuan Dynasty, Wei Yilin wrote Effective Formulae Handed Down for Generations. In the Ming Dynasty, Gong Tingxian wrote Restoration of Health from the Myriad Diseases, Pandect for Effectively Treating Ophthalmology and Keys to Pediatric Massage. Gong Juzhong wrote On Pyrophlegm. Nie Shangheng wrote Methods for Pediatric Diseases. Yi Silan wrote Yi’s Medical Records. Wan Mizai wrote Wan’s Gynecology and Personal Views on Pediatric Diseases. Chen Hui wrote Wondrous acupuncture moxibustion. Yu Shaoning wrote Secret Keys to Alchemy. Yu Jiayan wrote Yuyi Cao. In the Qing Dynasty, Xie Xinghuan wrote Xie Yinglu's Medical Records. Li Duo wrote Survived Medical Records. Zeng Ding wrote Tenets on Gynecology. Shu Zhao wrote Keys to Gynecology. Liu Shisong wrote New Compilation of Biochemical Gynaecology. Zhu Chungu wrote Final Conclusions of Exanthema Variolosum. Xiong Lipin wrote On Ma pox. Huang Mingsheng wrote 36 Kinds of Ilnesses of Laryngology. Zhang Chensheng wrote On 36 Kinds of Diseases of Laryngology. These books have  provided great inspirations and contributions for clinical divisions. For example, Keys to Pediatric Massage by Gong Tingxian is the earliest treatise on pediatrics massage in China, while Essence of External Diseases by Chen Ziming and Effective Formulae Handed Down for Generations by Wei Yilin were the pioneers of surgery and laryngology treatment based on differentiation of symptoms and signs. They pinpointed the terms “surgery” and “laryngology” in our country for the first time.

In the Xujiang River basin, the splendid medical works were introduced overseas as early as in the Ming Dynasty. According to Jin Shiying and Jin Pu’s researchess, among the six most influential comprehensive medical works introduced into Japan in the Ming Dynasty, there are Introducion to Medicine by Li Chan and Curative Measures for All Diseases by Gong Tingxian, both of which are Xujiang River physicians. Therefore, Xujiang River medicine has a far-reaching influence on the development, innovation and marching to the world of traditional Chinese medicine. (Xie Qiang from Xujiang Medicine Research Society).

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